1. Introduction to Teaching Online
The basic ways of how teaching online differs from traditional classroom teaching and the asynchronous and synchronous online teaching options we support.
WHAT IS INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN?
According to Smith & Regan (2005):
“The term instructional design refers to the systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction in to plans for instructional materials, activities, information resources, and evaluation. An instructional designer is somewhat like an engineer. Both plan their work based upon principles that have been successful in the past—the engineer on the laws of physics, and the designer on basic principles of instruction and learning. Both try to design solutions that are not only functional but also attractive or appealing to the end-user. Both the engineer and the instructional designer have established problem-solving procedures that they use to guide them in making decisions about their designs. (p. 4)”
HOW WILL AN INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNER HELP YOU DEVELOP YOUR COURSE?
Ko & Rossen (2910) explain:
“ When teaching in the face-to-face class, instructors are accustomed to responding to body language, questions from students and other cues that students are in need of further clarification, explanations, or assistance about what they should be doing in the course. For an online class, a good deal of this needs to be anticipated, so that students are clear about what they need to do and when and where, and the instructor can provide additional emphasis, reminders, and referrals to other resources as needed. Therefore, if you are working with an instructional designer, or within an even larger team framework, it’s best to approach the experience as a way to become more aware of the opportunity to try out new approaches to teaching arising from the multiple perspectives afforded to you by the team. (p. 103) “
Ko, S. & Rossen, S. (2010). Teaching online: A practical guide (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Smith, P. L. & Ragan, T.J. (2005). Instructional design (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
What instructional design is and how your instructional designer will guide you in the design and development of your course. You’ll also learn about the Quality Matters Rubric and how EP instructional designers use it to evaluate various elements of your online course.
An overview of Blackboard, the learning management system you’ll use to teach your online class.
2. Planning and Designing Your Course
We recommend for you to view this content prior to completing the Course Design Document.
How to write learning objectives and create a detailed design outline of your course.
What online activities and assessments are, various types of activities and assessments suited to the online environment, and how to develop an assessment strategy for your course. The importance of aligning activities and assessments with your learning objectives is also discussed.
3. Developing Online Content
We recommend for you to view this content prior to beginning prototype module development.
This video includes the following segments at the timestamps listed:
Slideshow Presentation Design [01:16]
Using Electronic Whiteboards [02:48]
Audio/Video Recording Tips [03:56]
Recording Tips: Audio [04:04]
Recording Tips: Video [05:36]
Live-Action Video Options [06:16]
General content presentation strategies for the content and delivery platform of your course and strategies for recording high-quality audio and video.
5. Facilitating Your Course
We recommend for you to view this content prior to course delivery.
What to include in your initial communication to students in order to prepare them for your class.
In the face-to-face environment, student-to-student, student-faculty, and student-content interactions occur synchronously and often develop organically (Moore, 1989). The challenge with online education is how to create opportunities for interaction that yield effective and rich learning experiences.
This resource outlines researched-based best practices for meaningful interactions in online courses.
1. Develop a communication plan.
Developing a communication plan will provide clear instructions on how you will be interacting with students and how they can interact with you. Removing ambiguity regarding communication will reduce unnecessary work responding to student questions via various channels and enable students to focus on the critical aspects of the educational experience.
- Determine your preferred method of communication (e.g., email, Zoom, Teams, phone).
Compliance Tip: If emailing with students, use your official Johns Hopkins University email account to comply with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA).
- Be clear, concise, and consistent about instructions, assignments, assessments, due dates, course pages, and office hours.
- Determine your response time to student communications (e.g., respond within 48 hours).
- Establish communication expectations and requirements for students. For example, queries about assignments posted in a public discussion forum.
- Add the communication plan to the course syllabus. See Appendix A.
2. Create regular individual and group meetings.
In online environment, students benefit from regular opportunities to connect with faculty and peers in a live synchronous environment.
- Structure meetings to provide appropriate engagement for learning and community building.
- For example: One-on-one meetings working on problems serve to both help students who are struggling and to build relationships of support.
- Group meetings can serve as ways for students to connect with each other so that they can also support each other outside of these meetings.
- Encouraging or incentivizing students to attend at least one such meeting, even when such meetings are voluntary, can break down the barriers to participation by making this engagement familiar.
- Create a weekly virtual office hour.
- Tech Tip: Use Zoom to conduct online live meetings.
- Poll students on the best dates/times for meetings with you and/or other instructors/teaching assistants (TAs).
3. Build a sense of community.
Building community in the online classroom is a vital aspect of education. Designing the online course to intentionally build connections between students and with the instructor provides a sense of belonging and support. Such bonds help combat the sense of isolation that is inherent in online learning, particularly when other tasks demand your time and you don’t have time to spontaneously check in on your students.
- Collaborative student work during active learning (perhaps in breakout room in Zoom) or project work (possibly offline) can build a sense of community. It may be helpful for instructors and TAs to explicitly describe or model the collaborative problem-solving process the instructor expects students to enact. Don’t assume they will intuitively adopt the norms you have in mind.
- Providing expectations for the kinds of collaboration the instructor expect on homeworks, projects and other assignments and assigning or assisting students in forming diverse work-groups can lower the barriers for students who may feel themselves to be outsiders (international students, underrepresented minority students, women in majority male classes, first-generation students).
- Use a modern communication platform for interaction and community building. Students prefer applications that are mobile-friendly.
- Create a personalized bio and statement that welcomes students to the course in text or video format.
- Ask students to share a personalized bio, video introductions, or other ways to introduce themselves at the beginning of the course.
4. Provide timely and meaningful feedback.
Online students depend on your timely and meaningful feedback for an authentic and personalized learning experience. Studies have shown that feedback is most effective when it is immediate, not delayed (I.e., several days, weeks, months later). Feedback that is constructive, specific, balanced, and collegial supports students in their learning more than generic feedback like, “Great work,” which is positive but not helpful.
- Be consistent with your stated communication plan. If you are not able to respond in a timely manner, communicate that to students.
- Proactively address problems as they emerge and be responsive to student concerns. Student problems can include workload conflicts, concerns about fairness, performance anxiety, interpersonal difficulties with teammates, extenuating circumstances like sickness, and clarity of expectations. You may address and support students in these matters yourself, or make the appropriate referrals to undergraduate and graduate affairs.
- Provide meaningful individual feedback and course-based feedback. For example, students should receive exams back in a timely manner and be able to interpret from the grading what topics they have mastered and what areas of their learning need to be revisited so as not to undermine their progress.
- Offer constructive feedback. Constructive feedback goes a long way to motivate and inspire students.
- Be specific. Think about how the feedback will help students reach a goal.
- Provide guidance on what they did well and what they may work to improve.
- Involve students in the process by providing them with ample information to help them succeed.
- Update grades frequently and provide opportunities for check-in on grade status. For example, you may consider providing a pro-rated grade starting after the first major assignment or exam, i.e. what their final letter grade will be if their performance continues as it has so far.
- Make grades easily accessible by posting them in a timely manner.
5. Include authentic assessments and active learning to support all types of interactions.
At the highest levels of learning, students are creating or putting elements together to form a new coherent or functional whole. Students are reorganizing elements into a new patterns or structures. Authentic assessments support the highest levels of learning. They require students to apply what he/she has learned to a new situation and determine what information and skills are relevant and how they will be used.
Asynchronous Text-Based Discussions
Asynchronous, text-based discussions are one of the most common ways students interact in online courses. But asynchronous, text-based discussions are not all created equally. The discussion prompts must contain some basic elements in order to promote student engagement and interaction.
- Create thought-provoking, open-ended discussion prompts that are related to the learning outcomes.
- Is the prompt so easy as to not present a challenge?
- Is the prompt so hard that the only reasonable way a student is likely to make progress is by obtaining the answer from the instructor or another source rather than generating it by applying learning?
- Determine whether students will be required to post and respond in a discussion.
- Does the discussion assess learning related to the course objectives?
- Will you grade the discussion responses?
- Will you grade participation in the discussions?
- Does the discussion prompt encourage interaction between students?
- Where appropriate and with clear guidelines, promote collaboration on homework questions or parts of assignments within a discussion.
- Public participation supports positive interdependence (i.e., members of a group who share common goals and success depends on the participation of all the members).
- Further, you can review these discussions to reveal misconceptions in learning.
Synchronous Live Discussions
Synchronous live discussions occur at the same time in one location such as on a Zoom meeting. These discussions can stimulate lively conversations around learning topics. You can use breakout rooms in Zoom to facilitate active learning and small group activities.
- Consider what students will be doing in live discussions and meetings.
- Use breakout rooms in Zoom for small group activities.
- Have students present on topics to add to the discussions.
- Pose questions that are open-ended and related to learning outcomes (See Best Practice 5-1).
- Let students know how they can interact during the discussion.
- Is it ok to unmute their mics?
- Can they use the chat function, and will you be monitoring it?
- Consider starting the meeting with an icebreaker or question to “warm” everyone up to the discussion.
- Consider a “muddiest point” at the end of the meeting to review any student misconceptions.
- Record the discussion for those who may not be able to attend.
Creating opportunities for students to collaborate on assessments offers opportunity for peer-learning, building relationships and communities, and innovation—all of which, align with essential skills for the 21st century.
- When creating groups, consider diversity, geography, and time zones.
- State clear expectations for collaborative group work. See Appendix B.
- Recommend technology tools to support group work.
- Tech Tip: JHU’s Office 365 subscription includes collaborative documents (e.g., Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint) and is integrated within Microsoft Teams.
Appendix A: Sample Communication Plan in Course Syllabus
Lecture Times Mondays and Fridays 1:30-2:45pm [room or Zoom link) Professor [Name]
Office [building and #]
Office Hours (day/time will be determined after student survey) Phone 410.xxx.xxx
TA Office Hours Thursday 5-7pm & Sunday 5-7pm
TAs [Name] & [email], [Name] & [email]
E-mail and Blackboard Policy
In general questions of a non-private nature regarding projects, lectures, reading or other curricular aspects of the class should not be sent by e-mail. Rather students are required to post these questions to the course website via the Discussions tool. If you would like to expedite the response to your question you may e-mail the instructor to alert him to the fact that you have recently posted a question on the board. Students may also post answers to questions on the discussion board. Only questions of an individual or personal nature, for example regarding your grade or your need to take an exam early, should be sent directly by e-mail. This policy is enforced to make the course website as useful as possible as a place that students can look for answers to frequently asked questions.
Office Hours via Zoom
This course will use Zoom to facilitate weekly, synchronous office hours. You are not required to participate in Office Hours; however, you may find them very beneficial for receiving more timely answers to questions related to the course content and assignments.
The course will be structured to permit students with numerous opportunities to engage in active discussions of thermodynamics to clarify the underlying concepts. Students are expected to watch the video linked lectures provided online via Blackboard. These are PDF files containing notes where each page is hyper-linked to a video that provides an explanation of the notes. Students are also expected to read the assigned chapters from the text prior to class. In addition, an assignment will be associated with each lecture. All students are responsible for submitting solutions to the assignment via Blackboard. At the start of class one student will act as the “presenter” who is assigned the responsibility of presenting the solutions to the class. Class will start with a short lecture recap. The remainder of class time will be spent working on other related problems. Class participation will be monitored and will constitute part of each student’s grade.’
Appendix B: Clear Expectations for Collaborative Group Work
Example taken from Gateway Computing: MATLAB
Step 1 (10 minutes)
Do not use your computers! Work in your group on the whiteboard to think about:
- What is your plan for writing the function?
- How will you test if the function works?
Step 2 (10 minutes)
Divide into teams of 2 (if there are an odd number of people you can form a 3-person team) to translate the pseudocode into a MATLAB script. Start by discussing who feels that they are most confused or needs the most practice. This person should operate the computer. The other person(s) should work with them and suggest what needs to be written in the code. Work as a team to write and test the code. At least one team should project their work on the wall. You may talk to the others in your group outside of your team.
Step 3 (10 minutes)
We will then share our ideas about solutions to this problem as a class, and perhaps step through writing the code.
Step 4 (10 minutes)
Now return to your entire group and talk about how you might change your code to [meet a secondary objective.]
Step 5 (10 minutes)
Work in your team to implement the code you discussed in your group.
These practices were derived from two sources:
- Several main theoretical frameworks for course design and teaching:
- Social constructivism
- Moore’s three types of interactions
- The Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education
- Quality Matters Course Design Standards
- Survey feedback from Johns Hopkins Engineering for Professionals (EP) faculty (n=94) and students (n=327). Survey results were coded using open coding protocol.
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Record-keeping strategies that aid in course facilitation and workload management strategies that minimize your teaching burden.
Key concepts and methods for providing timely and effective feedback to your students.
The slides for this presentation can be downloaded in PDF format: Feedback and Grading.
A transcript of the presentation is also available in PDF format: Feedback and Grading Transcript.
The following YouTube video is a presentation by Dr. Curtis Bonk , Professor of Education from Indiana University. In this video, he provides practical tips and suggestions for providing feedback in the online setting.
Feedback Scenario 1
In a software development project management course, students are working on a semester-long project that requires them to submit deliverables every two weeks. The students’ project proposals are due at the end of Module 3. In the project documentation, the instructor explains that she will approve and provide feedback for the project proposals within one week of the due date (i.e., by the end of Module 4). It is now day 5 of Module 5 and the students have not heard back from the instructor on their project proposals. Their project planning document is due on day 7 of Module 5.
Scenario 1 Prompts
How might the students be impacted by the instructor’s lack of timely feedback?
How might the instructor be impacted by her lack of timely feedback?
Feedback Scenario 2
In an advanced digital filters course, students submit PDF screenshots of lines of code as well as the raw MATLAB m-files as they learn various aspects of designing digital filters each week. The instructor downloads the PDF screenshots and provides annotated feedback in Acrobat Professional. In his annotations, he underlines erroneous parts of the code. He does not explain that his underlinings indicate errors. At the top of the screenshot puts a check-mark and writes, “Ok” and then saves the PDF and returns it to his students.
Scenario 2 Prompts
How might the students be impacted by the instructor’s lack of meaningful feedback?
What could the instructor do to increase the meaningfulness of his feedback?
The following resources are provided for further study of this topic.
iOn (n.d.). Illinois Online Network: Your source for technology-enhanced and online education information. Retrieved from http://www.ion.uillinois.edu/resources/tutorials/communication/feedback.asp
Brighthub.com (n.d.). Tips for giving online class feedback and constructive criticism. Retrieved from http://www.brighthub.com/education/online-learning/articles/35429.aspx
NETnet: The Northeast Texas Distance Learning Consortium. (n.d.). Distance education feedback strategies.